A V-type asteroid is an astroid whose spectra is that of 4 Vesta. Roughfully 6% of all main-belt astroids (between Mars and Jupiter) are Vesta-type with 4 Vesta being by far the largest of them. They are relatively bright, and rather similar to the most common, the S-type, which are also made up of iron. The V-types contain more pyroxene than S-types. Iron is a “popular” element in astroids. It is the most stable nucleus of all elements ( 56 Fe).
A large proportion of vestoids have orbital elements similar to those of Vesta, close enough to be part of the Vesta family. This suggests that they originated as fragments of Vesta’s crust. There seem to be two populations of vestoids, one created 2 billion years ago and the other 1 billion years ago, coming respectively from the enormous southern-hemisphere craters Veneneia and Rheasilvia.
A J-type has been suggested for asteroids having a particularly strong 1 μm absorption band similar to diogenite meteorites, likely being derived from deeper parts of the crust of 4 Vesta.
Their absorption spectra show a very strong feature at and near 0.75 μm and another around 1 μm. The visible wavelength spectrum of the V-type asteroids is undistiguished.
V-type NEAS (or V-NEAs) are near-Earth asteroids. Impacts of V-NEAs on the Earth, according to the known sample, occur once in about 12 million years and have the potential to cause disastrous effects on regional to global scale, producing craters as large as 30 km in diameter and releasing kinetic energy of as much as 3 MT.
An extremely interesting article has been published on the composition of V-type asteroids in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 3, September 2019, the URL below…