Royal Institution’s Christmas Lectures on BBC Four 20:00 26-28DEC18

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WHAT ARE THE CHRISTMAS LECTURES? WHY ARE THEY STILL SIGNIFICANT?

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Screen Shot 2018-12-22 at 4.26.47 AMThe Chemical History of a Candle was the title of a series of six lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames given by Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution in 1848, as part of the series of Christmas lectures for young people founded by Faraday in 1825 and still given there every year.  NOTE THE PROMINENT SEATING OF CHILDREN AT FRONT, UNOBSTRUCTED.

The lectures described the different zones of combustion in the candle flame and the presence of carbon particles in the luminescent zone. Demonstrations included the production and examination of the properties of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases. An electrolysis cell is demonstrated, first in the electroplating of platinum conductors by dissolved copper, then the production of hydrogen and oxygen gases and their recombination to form water. The properties of water itself are studied, including its expansion while freezing (iron vessels are burst by this expansion), and the relative volume of steam produced when water is vaporized. Techniques for weighing gases on a balance are demonstrated. Atmospheric pressure is described and its effects demonstrated. Michael Faraday emphasized that several of the demonstrations and experiments performed in the lectures may be performed by children “at home” and makes several comments regarding proper attention to safety.


 

 

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