Substantial thermal activity near sunrise and the horizon made filming tenuous. Nikon D-810 on the Celestron 203mm / 8″ HD Edge w/o wedge. All videos, except Ga3, were cropped with iMovie editor and converted to mp4. No improvement with wedge was discovered. As Jupiter moved away from the horizon, a moderate improvement in stability can be noted (Ga3 versus Ga4), as well as, the appearance of Jupiter I (Io) with an orbital period of ~42.46 hours. Jupiter I is ~3,600 km in diameter.
The first four discovered satellites of Jupiter were numerically named by Galileo, and until the mid-20th Century were simply known as Jupiter I-IV. This simplified time-keeping records for which the orbital periods of the satellites were accurately known to the time-second for navigation and for the determination of Longitude from Greenwich. Along with the apparent rotation of the Moon’s surface over the course of a night with reference to the observer, these were the most accurate means to determine time or longitude. Both systems (Jupiter’s satellites and the lunar surface) were used independently to determine the accuracy and validity of General Relativity in the early 20th Century – a great leap forward for scientific experimentation and human knowledge.
During the mid- to late-20th Century with the advent of atomic clock technology and the decay of seafaring human civilization, the importance of both Moon sightings and Jupiter I-IV, as navigational aids diminished. At the same time both religious fervor and superstition combined (e.g., in the USA, the addition of “under God” into the national anthem and “In God We Trust” as a formal motto equal to “E Pluribus Unum”) to replace solid scientific inquiry with the promotion of a ‘personification of deities’. As if all ancient astronomers were astrologers and had named everything observed after a god or ‘lover of the gods’.